Planting an Herb Garden: Expand Your Repertoire with Chives and Thai Basil

I'm still a little teary at the loss over the winter of the "tarragon hedge" in my raised bed dedicated to herbs, so a trip to get new starts was in order. After picking up replacement tarragon, I also got some chervil, Italian parsley and garlic chives—and came home to find that the Beaverton Farmers Market newsletter had some helpful hints about herbs used in Thai recipes, including those garlic chives I'd just bought!


“A little sprinkle of fresh herbs on a meal can mean the difference between flavors that are just nice, and flavors that are spectacular. And when you have fresh herbs growing in your own backyard, porch planters, or window box, this makes it even easier to boost the flavor of your homemade meals." - Gardener's Path


Beaverton Market Master Ginger Rapport agrees with this advice. Fresh herbs are always an important part of her garden plan. In fact, Ginger grows her herbs in large pots on the patio right outside her kitchen where they are readily accessible. They are both useful and beautiful. Important to note here that growing herbs in pots is also a defense against Ginger’s male grand-dog Jax, who loves to lift his leg on her garden plants. Fortunately, he is a small terrier, but if you have male dogs in the yard you will want to consider this when you plan your herb garden.

Garlic chives have solid leaves and a mildly garlic flavor.

Since Ginger does a lot of Thai cooking, there are two herbs, in particular, she raises in abundance—garlic chives and Thai basil.

Thai Basil and Italian Basil: Thai basil (top photo) is different from Italian basil, which she also grows, in that it has a more anise-like fragrance and smell with a slightly more spicy taste. The leaves are sturdier than Italian basil leaves and can withstand some cooking. Thai basil is an essential ingredient in pho, a Vietnamese soup, but it is used liberally in salads, curries, noodle dishes and stir-fries.

The two herbs, while related, are distinctive enough in flavor that using them interchangeably in a recipe shortchanges the dish you are preparing.  They each have their own distinct flavor notes so it is worth growing both varieties.

Thai basil and Italian basil are tender in our hardiness zone and are treated as annuals in the garden. Chives, on the other hand, come back year after year. In fact, they easily re-sow themselves in other areas of your garden so keep that in mind when planting them.

Regular chives have hollow leaves.

Garlic Chives vs. Regular Chives: The leaves and flowers of both chives and garlic chives are edible. However, regular chives grow tubular hollow leaves that smell and taste mildly oniony, whereas garlic chives grow wide flat leaves that taste mildly garlicky. Most of us are familiar with regular chives which are a common garnish for dishes that need a beautiful green touch and a gentle onion-flavored finish.

While garlic chives can be chopped to use as a garnish, keep in mind that they will have a tougher texture than regular chives. Because they are sturdier they can be treated more like a vegetable and are common ingredients in Asian cuisines including stir-fries, soups, salad, and marinades.


Get recipes for chive blossom vinegar and chive oil, as well as Ginger's favorite recipe for Pad Thai that usesarlic chives.

Photos from Gardener's Path.

Loving Lovage: Like Cardamom and Celery Had a Baby

I first heard about lovage from Stacey Givens of The Side Yard Farm in Portland's Cully neighborhood. "It's like cardamom and celery had a baby," she said of its intense, pungent flavor. Inspired by her passion for the plant, I bought an organic start at my favorite neighborhood garden store, Garden Fever, and put it in one of my raised beds.

Givens with her favorite herb.

Just like Stacey promised, in its second year it was one of the first herbs to pop up in the garden, and I've already used its leaves to pep up salads, its tender stems have been sautéed and the leaves chopped into a pasta dish with ground pork, and just last night I chopped the stems and leaves into a white bean stew that featured a pig trotter braised into fall-apart tenderness.

To expland my horizons on what is rapidly becoming my new favorite herb, I called Stacey to get the lowdown on lovage.

"I fucking love it!" she exclaimed when I asked about the herb and how it fit in with the "whole plant" cooking she espouses at the farm. Givens went on to explain that she uses the leaves and tender stems in pesto and salads, finding their flavor particularly suited to grilled fish, soups and stews. The more mature stems are hollow, and she has used them for straws with the bloody Marys she served at the farm's legendary brunches.

Younger stems and leaves.

Givens has two patches of lovage at the farm, one for fresh use as outlined above, and the other she lets go to seed. Lovage flowers are in "umbels" or clusters, like fennel or parsely, and the whole umbel can be shaken into a bag or large bowl to collect the pollen. The pollen can be used like fennel pollen with meats, eggs or dressings, and the flower heads themselves can be a garnish in salads or on cheese or charcuterie boards.

When the flowers go to seed, as with fennel, the seeds can be harvested and ground. Givens uses them as a garnish, sometimes pickling the seeds when they're still young and tender, and has also candied them with a coconut base.

If you're interested in having a lovage plant of your own, be sure to give these plants plenty of room, though, since the stems can get seven to 10 feet high. When they reach their full height, Givens says, she cuts them down, shakes off any leaves, and cuts them into one-foot lengths that are then bundled and dried to use in the farm's smoker. She recommends starting with a mild white fish like black cod that will be the perfect pairing to bring out its unique flavor.

Use larger stems as a straw.

In Vegetable Literacy, author Deborah Madison, also a lover of lovage, says it is third only to capers and green tea in its concentration of quercetin, a dietary flavonoid believed to have brain-protective, anti-allergy, and anticancer properties. Madison recommends using lovage with fresh tomatoes—a summer tomato salad would be amazing with a chiffonade of the leaves—or in green soups.

You can find lovage in the "herbs" section of the farm's online store, a venture new to the farm necessitated by the closing of local restaurants due to the coronavirus pandemic. 

Givens said the loss of her longtime restaurant clients was a blow, but the sudden rush by the public looking for local food suppliers has more than offset the loss of restaurant revenue. Plus it has allowed her to partner with other producer friends to offer a wide range of homemade goods. (Givens said to look for her "killer" cherry and lovage soda pop syrup coming to the online store!) Another surprise? For the first time in years she's been able to experience what a weekend is like, since she's not doing end-of-the-week catering events.

Grow, little lovage, grow!

Taking her love for lovage all the way through the finale of the meal, Givens said that the leaves and stems can also infuse an ice cream base. I may just have to try a lovage sorbet this summer that might be a fun pairing with a sweet melon.

Now if only that little plant in my raised bed would grow faster!

Watch Stacey's Seed. Plate. Eat., her show about taking one ingredient through its whole life cycle. (Episode 1 is about lovage!)

Photos of the Side Yard Farm by Shawn Linehan.

In Season: Galangal, Lemongrass and Turmeric

In the most recent Beaverton Farmers Market newsletter, market manager Ginger Rapport offered a primer on using galangal, lemongrass and turmeric. Normally thought of as exotic ingredients, they've been adapted to grow in Oregon's maritime climate and are now being grown by several local farms. Find them at your neighborhood farmers' market, as well as at Rubinette Produce or other stores that carry produce from local farms.

Galangal

This flavorful tuber (top photo) is the spicy cousin of ginger and is prized in Thai cuisine for the citrus-like flavor it imparts to soups and its burst of herbal heat in curry pastes. Usually found in Asian grocery stores, you can also find organic galangal at Denison Farms’ booth this Saturday alongside fresh lemongrass and turmeric.

galangal2.jpg

Galangal’s knobby tubers are prepared much like ginger. To be recipe-ready, they are usually peeled and then minced, sliced or grated. It is possible to substitute ginger for galangal when it is unavailable, but we recommend you make the effort to use this zingy aromatic when it is in season. According to Cook’s Illustrated magazine, galangal’s distinctive piney flavor is best used in savory dishes as opposed to sweet dishes where ginger is a better option.

tom_yum_soup.jpgSince fresh galangal is not available all year round, we recommend putting a stash of peeled fresh tubers in your freezer for use when it is out of season. While you are thinking in advance, we recommend freezing lemongrass as well. Together, they provide the exciting flavors required for a variety of delicious dishes including soups, curries and sauces. To freeze lemongrass, trim stalks to the bottom six inches, then transfer to zip-lock bags and freeze.

Galangal is a critical ingredient in the popular hot and sour Thai soup known as Tom Yum or Tim Yam (above right). And, while it's possible to substitute ginger for the galangal, why bother when you are lucky enough to access the real thing? The combination of spicy aromatics, flavorful broth and tasty add-ins make this the perfect dish for our chilly winter days.

Lemongrass

Lemongrass is a stalky plant that gives dishes a zesty lemon flavor and aroma. Look for stalks that are fragrant, tightly formed, and a lemony-green color on the lower stalk.

lemongrass.jpgTo prepare lemongrass, remove tough outer leaves to expose the pale yellow interior that is softer and easier to slice. Use a sharp serrated blade to slice off the lower bulb, about two inches from the end of the stalk. Discard bulb. Stop slicing when you have cut two-thirds of the way up the stalk, or when it is no longer yellow and fleshy. Because lemongrass is so tough, the slices will need a to processed in the food processor on high, or pounded in a mortar and pestle for a minute or two.

Fresh Turmeric

Livelier than its dried form, fresh turmeric has bright orange flesh and is earthy, peppery and slightly bitter. Like ginger and galangal, it is usually peeled before using.

turmeric_roots.jpgStore fresh turmeric in the refrigerator in a plastic bag, or airtight container, or freeze it for several months. In recipes, one inch of fresh turmeric is equivalent to one tablespoon freshly grated turmeric, or 1 teaspoon of ground turmeric.